BLOOD GASES, PH AND ELECTROLYTES.
1. PO2 (or gases) is measure in which unit. A. Mmol b. Umol c. MmHg
2. Acidemia is associated with
3.To correct acidosis, the kidneys: a. secrete more H+ in urine. b. Synthesis bicarbonate to ECF c. Both a and b
4. A buffer is made of ? a. Strong acid & strong salt b. Strong acid & weak salt c. Weak acid & strong salt d. Weak acid & weak salt.
5. pH means:
6. What is the base: acid ratio at pH 7 for acid of pK6? a. 0.01 b. 0.1 c. 1.0 d. 10 e. 100
7. Which is more serious? a. Glucose 15mmol/l b. pH 7.25 acidosis. c. Potassium 1.5 mmol/l d. Sodium 150 mmol/l
8. Metabolic acidosis can result from:
9. pH of the blood.
Acid base balance.
10. H+ homeostasis is altered by; a. Excessive change of pyruvate to lactate.
11. Main extracellular ions? a. Na & K b. Na & Cl
12. Intracellular fluid contains: a. More potassium less sodium than extracellular fluid.. b. Sodium and potassium in equal amount.
13.Hypernatremia occurs with a. Cushing disease b. Dehydration c. hypothalamic injury d. All of the above
14.Regarding concentration of urine; a. Proximal tubules return 75% of filtered water. b. Distal convoluted tubules deliver 40-60L of fluid to collecting tubules / day. c. Osmotic pressure in renal cortex is higher than in medulla. d. ADH acts on all parts of nephrone. e. Aldosterone increase Na excretion.
15. Excessive secretion of prolactin causes a.Amenorrhea b.Gynecomastia c.Acromegaly d.dysmenorrhea
16. Excretion of dilute urine is seen in this condition a.Diabetes mellitus b. Diabetes insipedus c.Urinary tract infection d.Pelvic inflammatory disease
17. Which hormone is known as vasopresin a.Prolactin b.ADH c.Insulin d.Oxytocin
18. Calculate the anion gap if Na=143mmol/l K=4.5mmol/l Cl= 105mmol/l HCO3= 24mmol/l
19. Convert to International unit Glucose=180mg/DL
20. Convert serum bilirubin=389mg/DL to International unit.
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